Code of ethics

Code of ethics


The National Conferences of Deans of Medicine and Dentistry drew up a charter of ethics, professional conduct and scientific and professional integrity to formalize and harmonize their practices in this area in 2017, followed by the Conference of Deans of Pharmacy in 2021.  The following text corresponds to the update carried out in 2023. This Charter meets ethical requirements, particularly with regard to scientific and professional integrity, connected persons1, and social expectations. This text reflects the application of this charter by Sorbonne University's Faculty of Health Sciences.
The Faculty bases all its activities on the universal values that inspire respect for human rights, the dignity of the human person, and solidarity. The Faculty also shares the fundamental values of the University: high standards, independence, humanism, promotion of critical thinking and openness to society. The Faculty complies with the laws and regulations in force in our national community and, where there is no law or regulation, it bases itself on the recommendations of national and/or international works, charters and bodies.
The Faculty has a public service mission in terms of training, research, orientation and professional integration of its students. In addition, its university hospital staff have a healthcare mission. Cooperation between the academic world and the socio-economic world, particularly industry, is essential to these missions of training, research and care, for the benefit of students, society and patients through medical progress. The concept of translational research, a continuum between basic and applied research, as well as public health research and innovation, illustrate this need for cooperation. This dynamic, which is part of the Faculty's statutory missions, must be carried out with respect for professional and scientific integrity, transparency of interest links, and the fight against practices of influence.  In the context of education2,he Faculty's common mission of general interest is to train future healthcare professionals in the approaches to care, the management of public health issues and respect for the dignity and protection of the human person. This mission is based on two pillars: care and research. In its educational policy, protecting the interests of patients and the community must take precedence over all other considerations. For this reason, the independence of medical training from vested interests is non-negotiable - it's a public health issue. Students benefit from an institutional and academic framework that must guarantee this independence during a training course delivered by academics, in compliance with the principles of transparency, loyalty, impartiality, and professional and scientific integrity, to which these professionals commit themselves when they are recruited.
The pharmaceutical industry is often at the forefront when it comes to conflicts of interest, even though the financial stakes involved in medical devices are just as high. Companies involved in connected devices and healthcare data analysis, as well as the use of artificial intelligence software, are also important stakeholders. Conflicts of interest do not sum up the ethical issues facing health faculties: professional and scientific integrity are also essential.
The Faculty joins in the common effort to ensure that our society becomes sustainably eco-responsible, and contributes to social cohesion and public health. Compliance with the commitments set out in this Charter, which aims to promote the principles of ethics, deontology, and professional and scientific integrity, is essential to the operation and administration of the Faculty, as well as to its relations with partners from the socio-economic and public sectors, in particular hospitals, the private health sector, and private players. This Charter is binding on the Faculty.

1) The faculty undertakes to uphold scientific integrity

The European Commission has made scientific and professional integrity one of its top priorities in health teaching, research and practice.
The national charter of ethics for the healthcare professions adopted by the Faculty also stresses the importance of respect for the principle of integrity by the healthcare professions. In addition, as part of its teaching and research missions, the Faculty is committed to promoting
respect the fundamental rights of individuals in care and research practices, the rules governing the protection and information of research participants, the proper use of health data, and the conditions governing access to and use of elements and products of the human body, all of which contribute to the concept of integrity.
This is why the faculty is committed to respecting the proposals for implementing the national charter of ethics for research professions, as detailed in the report by Prof. Pierre Corvol (June 29, 2016). Among these proposals, some fall under national or University policy, while others concern the faculty directly. For example:

  • Proposition 4 calls for "the acquisition of a broad scientific culture, including an introduction to research ethics and scientific integrity".
  • Proposal 5 recommends "ensuring that every student has received training in ethics and scientific integrity" for doctoral schools. These proposals should be extended to all healthcare professionals and students.
  • Proposal 6 calls for "bottom-up" training programs in which students trained in scientific integrity can contribute to the training of subsequent generations.
  • Proposal 8 calls for training in research ethics and scientific integrity
  • Proposals 9 and 10 encourage the faculty to have a code of ethics and scientific integrity by providing funding from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (National Research Agency, like that of other national and European research agencies) subject to them having such a code and by asking the Haut Conseil de l’évaluation de la Recherche et de l’Enseignement Supérieur (High Council for the Evaluation of Research and Higher Education) to assess its implementation.
  • Proposition 12 encourages the Faculty to "promote and implement research on the means and effects of integrity training, on the epistemological issues of ethics, integrity and scientific responsibility, and on their societal consequences".

The Faculty undertakes to put in place measures likely to promote the responsible conduct of research in its fundamental and universal characteristics of scientific integrity and reproducibility, by respecting :  

  • the filing of a research protocol on an accessible site before the research is carried out;
  • statistical analysis of results in accordance with the research agreement, carried out independently of private sponsors and investigators,
  • scientific writing in line with EQUATOR guidelines (http://www.equator-network.org/; CONSORT, ESTROBE, STARD, PRISMA, etc.),
  • communication of results, whether positive or negative, either in the form of publication or registration,
  • guaranteed access to research source data,
  • transparency and openness of research methods and results, enabling verification and replication.
  • mechanisms for listening to whistle-blowers, recording their complaints and protecting them in accordance with the law of March 21, 2022 (https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/dossierlegislatif/JORFDOLE000044344207/).

The Faculty is committed to combating, to the best of its ability, all breaches of scientific integrity (falsification and fabrication of data, theft of results and plagiarism, failure to respect the rights of research subjects, such as the information and informed consent of research participants, failure to respect the regulatory obligations of research on humans or animals) and, more generally, all "dubious research practices".
Plagiarism, by creating a de facto inequality, injures the plagiarized, the plagiarizer's institution, the scientific and/or educational community and the public, by exposing them to damage linked to theft and misuse. As part of its plagiarism prevention policy, the Faculty undertakes to train its students and academics on the risk of plagiarism. The use of similarity detection software for theses and dissertations must be systematic. In the current regulatory context, and in the interests of efficiency, the faculty should be supported by the public authorities in the acquisition and use of such software. With regard to authorship of scientific articles or works, the Faculty promotes and enforces compliance with international rules, in particular those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org/). Indeed, the signature on a scientific article is recognition of a genuine "creation of the mind" by one or more authors. As a result, the intellectual property and value of a work are recognized, and this presupposes a significant contribution to the conception or realization of the work presented, with total integrity.  
Authorship of the scientific work must be attributed to those who meet the ICMJE criteria. The usual practices concerning authors who do not contribute to the "creation of the mind", i.e. those known as "guest authors" (or "gifts" because they did not participate in the research) and so-called ghost authors (e.g. the professional editor not thanked, the student or staff omitted voluntarily) must be banned as they constitute a breach of scientific integrity. The Faculty condemns the double publication of the same data (self-plagiarism) except under special conditions (different languages) and subject to the authorization of the journals concerned and the information of readers with explicit mention of the first publication. We do not recommend the use of artificial intelligence software to assist copywriting, and if such software is used, it must comply with the highest standards required by publishers (https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2801170).
The publication of scientific work in so-called "predatory" journals is prohibited, as is editorial activity for these journals (https://www.councilscienceeditors.org/resource-library/editorial-policies/cse- policies/approved-by-the-cse-board-of-directors/predatory-deceptive- publishers-recommendations-caution/). Together with the CNU Santé, the medical faculties have drawn up a non-exhaustive list of scientific journals that are presumed not to be predatory, and to which it is recommended that articles be submitted for publication (https://conferencedesdoyensdemedecine.org/). Without calling into question the freedom of academics in terms of editorial activity, it must be remembered that this must not be to the detriment of their core missions.
When it comes to evaluating research work (peer review), but also for any mission where their expertise is required, teacher-researchers must provide an impartial, rapid and rigorous assessment, while respecting confidentiality, intellectual property and integrity.
With regard to participation in research projects, scientific communications and publications, expert appraisals and teaching activities, teacher-researchers are required to disclose any links of interest likely to have influenced their work, honestly and exhaustively.

When communicating with the general public, and in accordance with current ethical rules, teachers must limit their statements and publications to their professional expertise.

As soon as they express an opinion (ideology, civic point of view, political, cultural or religious commitment), they must no longer express themselves in the capacity of their function or institution, and must state in what capacity they are expressing themselves.
To monitor and support all the commitments set out in the present Charter, the faculty undertakes to appoint a scientific integrity representative and to set up an ethics committee within the faculty, working in conjunction with the University's Scientific Integrity Delegation. The scientific integrity coordinator is a correspondent of the Office Français de l'Intégrité Scientifique (OFIS) and an ex-officio member of the Commission de déontologie et d'intégrité scientifique. This point of contact is appointed by the faculty board3on the joint recommendation of the Dean of the Faculty and the Chairman of the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity.He or she must be independent of the Faculty's authorities. It participates in national and European networks of scientific integrity advisors, enabling them to share their field experience and help research practices evolve.

2) The faculty is committed to ethics

The faculty undertakes to respect and ensure respect for the rules of ethics and integrity advocated by all the orders of the professions of which it is composed.
Faculty staff must not use their prerogatives to favor or harm a third party. They must not create or abuse a situation in relation to a natural or legal person that would lead them not to comply with the provisions of the present Charter or to depart from the texts and laws in force.
As an example of compliance with the rules governing the management of links and conflicts of interest, faculty staff must refrain from taking part in debates and votes in decision-making bodies on subjects in which they have a personal, family or professional conflict of interest.
To support this dynamic, it is essential that a member of the Conseil de l'Ordre des Médecins sits on the UFR council and/or the ethics commission.The faculty is committed to training its students in professional ethics, in collaboration with the professional associations.It is recommended that this training be adapted to the student's level of study and degree of clinical responsibility, and repeated throughout the course.The Faculty is committed to promoting equality between men and women, combating discrimination of all kinds, and ensuring accessibility for people with disabilities, whatever their origin. In particular, the faculty is fully committed to complying with the Law on the Transformation of the Civil Service, which establishes and publicizes mechanisms for reporting and monitoring sexist and sexual violence, moral harassment and discrimination (https://www.fonction-publique.gouv.fr/files/files/Publications/Coll%20outils%20de%20la%20GRH/guide_violences-sexistes-2022.pdf). It is committed to respecting and ensuring respect for national decisions concerning secularism, applicable to universities on the one hand, and to partner healthcare structures on the other.
It is possible to set up a joint ethics and scientific integrity commission between several health UFRs (medicine, odontology, pharmacy, maieutics) or within a single health faculty.

3) Ethical and professional training for responsible conduct

Compulsory courses cover the points of this Charter, and in particular :

  • ethics ;  
  • professional deontology, in collaboration with the respective "Conseils de l'Ordre" ;
  • the principles and rules of scientific integrity, including plagiarism and the rules of scientific communication, declaration of links of interest and management of conflicts of interest (in line with the principles of the Pharmfree Curriculum of the American Medical Student Association; https://www.amsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ModelPharmFreeCurriculum.pdf) ;
  • more generally, the proper use of medical and scientific information, information manipulation and influencing practices, how to spot them and guard against any risk of loss of independence. This teaching is renewed during the third cycle, adapted to the specialty taught and to the particular vulnerability of students in view of their growing responsibilities towards patients.

Every year, the faculty provides ethics training for young lecturers (CCA, AHU) and new academics in the first few months after they take up their posts. Similar training is provided in the DU and DIU teaching courses, which are now included as prerequisites in the training of future academics by most CNU sub-sections and by the hospital-university commissions examining applications from future academics. As part of their continuing education obligations, all teachers must also receive the same training at a regular rate.

4) Transparency and declaration of connected persons

The declaration of links of interest is an important element of the policy to combat conflicts of interest, and contributes to transparency on the part of players in public life. Health professionals, when called upon to act as experts, are already obliged to make public declarations of their links of interest via easily consultable national institutions.
The Faculty undertakes to make available on its own website the links of interest of the members of its governing bodies (UFR Councils) and of its commissions that may have to deal with related subjects (commission on the accumulation of ancillary activities, ethics commission, teaching commission, research commission). In addition, lecturers are required to disclose their links of interest to students prior to any lectures they give, whatever their nature (written, oral, online). Disclosing links of interest prior to each course is an example of how students can learn about scientific integrity. Teachers must be neutral with regard to the company or institution with which they have a link.

5) Accumulation of additional activities

The faculty sets up a commission to examine requests to combine ancillary activities, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force and the recommendations of the Conférence nationale des Doyens de facultés de médecine, the Conférence nationale des Doyens de facultés de pharmacie, Conférence nationale des Doyens de facultés de pharmacie, Conférence nationale des Doyens de facultés de chirurgie dentaire, Conférence nationale des Présidents de Commission médicale d'établissement (CME), de Centres hospitaliers universitaires (CHU) and Conférence nationale des Directeurs généraux de CHU.  
The elements analyzed by the commission include: (i) whether the ancillary activity complies with the official definition, (ii) whether the cumulative duration over the year complies with the number of authorized days, and (iii) the level of cumulative remuneration in relation to total remuneration. The commission's opinions, whether positive or negative, are forwarded to the authorities of the two establishments for authorization. Authorization is issued jointly by the University President and the General Director of the CHU, or their respective delegates.  The CNOM's investigation is compulsory under the French "anti-gifts" law, and enables it to check whether the fees and out-of-pocket expenses associated with the ancillary activity are subject to simple declaration, or whether they require authorization.

The joint commission comprises at least 4 members, including a representative of the CHU's Medical Affairs Department, the Dean or his/her representative, and doctors chosen by the institutions on a consensual and equal basis, if possible from official bodies (Management Board, CME, Faculty Council). In addition, a representative of the CNOM may be included, without voting rights, depending on local practices.  
A derogatory declaration system applies only to ancillary activities carried out with a public higher education establishment, a public research establishment, a foundation recognized by the HCERES as being in the public interest, a State administration, a local authority, an intergovernmental organization or an institution or body of the European Union. This simple declaration is sent to the same commission.
Immersion training courses held in healthcare facilities (operating theatres, interventional rooms, etc.) when financed by a private provider and taking place during working hours cannot give rise to remuneration as ancillary activities. They require a prior agreement between the service provider and the hospital.

6) Benefits and gifts

Gifts financed by the industry, which can be viewed online, are not authorized, as even low-value gifts are likely to influence prescribers' decisions, thus directly affecting patients.
Expenses and/or hospitality (transport, accommodation, registration) for attending conferences, meetings and scientific congresses constitute a benefit, which is authorized by law under certain conditions. This benefit must be declared on the "Links of interest" transparency website. In the current absence of an appropriate source of institutional, hospital and/or university funding, payments for the presentation of a scientific paper at selective scientific events, and solely for the author presenting the paper, or participation in an event that cannot be covered by research funding but appears necessary for the teacher's continuing education, are considered derogatory. In all cases, the funding must be submitted to the faculty.

7) The faculty will ensure that external funding does not influence the independence of educational content

As a public institution whose purpose is the disinterested transmission of medical knowledge, the Faculty must make transparent any funding it may receive from industry or other private bodies, by publishing it on its public website.
from industry and other private bodies by publishing them on its public website. It must ensure that such funding does not interfere with the independence of the teaching content.
Industries are not currently authorized to provide financial support for initial or continuing professional training (Développement Professionnel Continu or DPC), either directly or through a subsidiary agency, with the exception of Foundations, although developments are currently being studied. The only exceptions to this rule are specific training initiatives where the industrial company is the sole provider of part of the expertise (e.g. training on a specific device or piece of equipment), or those designed to help students find employment in industrial sectors. In such cases, a special authorization must be issued by the Dean, after a favorable opinion from the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity, and the training program must be supervised by an academic with no ties of interest with the industry concerned.

Direct funding of research and teaching activities by industry is possible under a number of different arrangements (apprenticeship tax, miscellaneous funding), which have been extended since the Pécresse Law (Law no. 2007-1199 of August 10, 2007 on the freedoms and responsibilities of universities). Such funding must not interfere with the faculty's mission and obligation to educate and protect students from the influence of private interests, and must therefore be approved by the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity. They must be approved by a vote of the UFR Council. As a public institution whose purpose is the disinterested transmission of medical knowledge, the faculty must make transparent the funding received, ensuring that this information is accessible to the general public.

8) Good educational practices in relationships with health industries

All health products quoted in the course of our teaching must be referred to by their International Non-proprietary Names (INNs), without mentioning trade names or relaying marketing messages, whatever the medium (written, oral, online). The same principles apply to medical devices and brand names in general. They also apply to exam subjects, training subjects and exam preparation, as well as to national exams.
Faculty courses, including continuing education and those given within affiliated hospitals, may not be given by the industry itself or its representatives, or by any other private for-profit organization, other than for the purpose of sharing experience on the operation of the industry itself, or for the orientation and professional integration of students within these industries. Exceptions are possible when the industry is the sole source of knowledge, and such exceptions are authorized by the Dean after consultation with the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity.
Teaching materials distributed within the faculties may under no circumstances be written, distributed or financed by industry or any other private for-profit organization.

Students have the right to exercise a duty of reserve when they are in a position of influence. They can express themselves freely on the conditions under which their training is being carried out during hospital internships, without exposing themselves to grievances or sanctions from their hierarchical superiors. Elected student members of the UFR Council may refer any situation they feel should be referred to the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity. They may also refer such cases to ad hoc commissions if they are aware of any such practices, although they cannot be held personally liable in this respect.
The use by academics of teaching aids supplied by industry or any other private organization, or their prior examination by industry or any other private organization, is prohibited, including for external conferences.

9) Staff promotion and recruitment

Recruitment and promotion of staff (teaching, research, administration and technical support) are based on fair and transparent criteria and methods, without discrimination or favoritism of any kind, for example linked to gender, age, socio-economic, ethnic, political, trade union or religious affiliation. In this respect, in application of the Roudy law of July 13 1983, the faculty reaffirms its commitment to promoting parity.
When recruiting tenured and non-tenured academic staff, the Faculty is committed to adopting a balanced quantitative/qualitative and research/pedagogical approach, rather than focusing on the quantitative aspects of research. The evaluation of scientific work should not be based solely on the impact factor of journals, but should give priority to qualitative aspects (San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA): http://www.ascb.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/sfdora.pdf). The SIGAPS or SIAPS point thresholds are only indicative values of a minimum requirement, which must be adapted and contextualized. These global quantitative variables cannot be used to compare individuals, especially when they come from different specialties. Any proven breach of the rules of scientific and professional integrity must be taken into account when assessing candidates and career paths.

10) Links with care partners

Compliance with the Charter's commitments is also essential in the Faculty's relations with its main partners and players in the healthcare world, particularly hospitals and the liberal healthcare sector. Exposure to the risk of conflict of interest in the healthcare sector should not be underestimated. The principles set out in this Charter must be shared with healthcare establishments or facilities where teachers work and where students are accommodated. Faculties must promote, in conjunction with partner institutions, procedures and recommendations aimed at guaranteeing the quality of teaching provided in practical placements, including their ethical and deontological quality, as well as the fair assessment of students during these placements. Internships must be evaluated on a regular basis.
      Marketing representatives from the pharmaceutical and healthcare product industries (in the broadest sense) are not allowed to meet university staff in healthcare areas or in the presence of students. This means that they cannot give presentations in the presence of students. Derogatory authorizations may be granted for non-commercial purposes when only the manufacturer has the necessary knowledge (e.g. training on specific devices or equipment, see chapter 8).

11) Commitment to training, listening and monitoring students

Student selection, orientation and assessment are based on fair criteria and methods. The Faculty ensures fair access to learning resources and validation of teaching. As part of its teaching activities, the Faculty is committed to ensuring that the knowledge and skills acquired by its students are of the highest standard, which it owes to the future patients and students it trains, future healthcare professionals who are responsible for patients in the eyes of society. It is also committed to a high standard of teaching quality and benevolence towards its students. Relations between
teachers, administrative and technical staff and students must be courteous and respectful, while respecting their privacy. This also applies to inter-professional relations, which form the basis of patient care.

12) Ethics Committee

A Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity has been set up within the Faculty to examine all matters relating to ethics and scientific and professional integrity, in particular breaches of the present charter, which it is responsible for promoting awareness of and compliance with. Any staff member or user of the Faculty may refer a matter to the Ethics Commission. This commission includes members from outside the faculty, notably a user representative (students), a representative of the Director General of the CHU and of the President of the CME of the CHU, and, if possible, a representative of patients' associations and a representative of a Conseil de l'Ordre. At least one non-tenured lecturer (CCA-AHU) is a member of the teaching staff. The scientific integrity officer is an ex-officio member of the commission. The Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity draws up an annual report on its activities, which is presented to the UFR Council and communicated to the Dean, who forwards it to the President of the University after receiving the opinion of the Faculty Council.

13) The Faculty's commitment to the environment and environmental health

The Faculty's actions must be part of a common effort to ensure that our society becomes sustainably eco-responsible and contributes to social cohesion and public health, in order to meet the challenges of environmental crises, climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution and the over-exploitation of resources. These actions are in line with those of the university. Conscious of its missions in terms of training, research, professional integration, development and internationalization, the Faculty is committed to playing a leading role in this collective effort, within the framework of all its missions and operations, in line with the global objective of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Accordingly, the faculty undertakes to implement the measures set out below, integrating them into its strategic priorities:

  • to appoint an environment/sustainable development coordinator, responsible for reflection and implementation of training and research initiatives; this coordinator participates in the national network of coordinators in question;
  • in terms of teaching, to set up environmental health courses in the 1st cycle, 2nd cycle (in particular through the health service) and 3rd cycle in the form of continuing education courses, and to share these training tools with other faculties, paramedical health schools and veterinary schools;

  • in the field of research, to encourage the university's research, including partnerships, in response to environmental issues, and to promote cooperation between research, teaching and civil society in the field of sustainable development (citizens, associations, local authorities, businesses, trade unions, etc.) ;

  • to build an eco-responsible campus, by developing a sustainable development plan as part of each university's strategy, in collaboration with the CHU and affiliated health establishments, the ARS and local authorities, associations and civil society, by limiting resource consumption (energy, water, paper, packaging, particularly plastic, etc.) and waste production as much as possible, and by promoting the use of renewable energies. ) and waste production, by developing a waste sorting policy to encourage recycling of materials and limit the depletion of natural resources, by encouraging low-carbon transport (bicycle parks, car-sharing, etc.), and by promoting responsible behavior in terms of digital use.

  • to propose a communications strategy to educate students, faculty and staff, and the general public about environmental health issues, to communicate internally about the school's commitment, the actions implemented and the results obtained, and to provide all users with easy access to environmental information;

  • to support and give visibility to initiatives in favor of ecologically and socially responsible actions carried out by the university community (students, administrative and technical staff, lecturers) ;

  • to work with local authorities to develop environmental health, in particular by training elected representatives.
    The Faculty is committed to ensuring that its environmental protection policy is part of a continuous improvement process.

14) Non compliance with the charter

The present Charter is binding on all those involved in the Faculty, whatever their rank, status or hierarchical level. The Faculty undertakes to refer to the appropriate disciplinary authorities any employee of the institution or student who has violated all or part of the present Charter. The Faculty undertakes to alert the supervisory authorities and professional bodies concerned in the event of failure to comply with any of the points of the Charter which fall within the scope of a legislative or regulatory text.
The Faculty undertakes to facilitate investigations into scientific and professional integrity, in particular those requested by scientific journals, learned societies and public institutions. Such investigations must respect the principle of presumption of innocence and the rights of the defense, as well as the protection of whistle-blowers and copyright. The faculty undertakes to implement a comprehensive policy for combating reprehensible conduct: complaint reception process, investigation process, mediation mechanism, handling of plagiarism or fraud. The company undertakes to support or implement a number of processes, including: retraction of publication, apology, request for disciplinary sanctions, retraction of publication, apology, request for disciplinary sanctions, communication of sanctions, reporting to the relevant authorities and professional associations. In the event of any documented suspicion of misconduct, professors and students are invited to contact the Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity to discuss the advisability of initiating an investigation. The Faculty is committed to ensuring that all its members are informed about whistle-blowing and current legislation. It undertakes to apply and promote these measures. The Commission for Ethics and Scientific Integrity and the Scientific Integrity Officer are available to advise any whistle-blowers, including in situations not directly covered by the law.
All faculty staff and students are invited to sign the charter. Candidates for recruitment are required to sign the Charter before being recruited.
The Charter was approved by the Faculty Council on December 20, 2017 and its update approved on June 20, 2023.



1.The notion of a link of interest covers the interests or activities, past or present, of a patrimonial, professional or family nature, of the expert in relation to the object of the expertise entrusted to him. A conflict of interest arises from a situation in which an expert's ties of interest are likely, by their nature or intensity, to call into question his impartiality or independence in the exercise of his expert appraisal mission with regard to the case to be handled.  
2. The term "teaching" is associated with undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate courses, as well as continuing education.
3. The term faculty council refers to the Research and Training Board as defined in the Education Code, as defined in Article L713-3.